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外泌体分泌机制;外泌体如何分泌到细胞外,exosome biogenesis

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发表于 2016-7-15 18:49:01 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
外泌体分泌机制;外泌体如何分泌到细胞外,exosome biogenesis

Colombo, M., et al. (2014). "Biogenesis, secretion, and intercellular interactions of exosomes and other extracellular vesicles." Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 30: 255-289.
        In the 1980s, exosomes were described as vesicles of endosomal origin secreted from reticulocytes. Interest increased around these extracellular vesicles, as they appeared to participate in several cellular processes. Exosomes bear proteins, lipids, and RNAs, mediating intercellular communication between different cell types in the body, and thus affecting normal and pathological conditions. Only recently, scientists acknowledged the difficulty of separating exosomes from other types of extracellular vesicles, which precludes a clear attribution of a particular function to the different types of secreted vesicles. To shed light into this complex but expanding field of science, this review focuses on the definition of exosomes and other secreted extracellular vesicles. Their biogenesis, their secretion, and their subsequent fate are discussed, as their functions rely on these important processes.


Baietti, M. F., et al. (2012). "Syndecan-syntenin-ALIX regulates the biogenesis of exosomes." Nat Cell Biol 14(7): 677-685.
        The biogenesis of exosomes, small secreted vesicles involved in signalling processes, remains incompletely understood. Here, we report evidence that the syndecan heparan sulphate proteoglycans and their cytoplasmic adaptor syntenin control the formation of exosomes. Syntenin interacts directly with ALIX through LYPX(n)L motifs, similarly to retroviral proteins, and supports the intraluminal budding of endosomal membranes. Syntenin exosomes depend on the availability of heparan sulphate, syndecans, ALIX and ESCRTs, and impact on the trafficking and confinement of FGF signals. This study identifies a key role for syndecan-syntenin-ALIX in membrane transport and signalling processes.


Raiborg, C. and H. Stenmark (2009). "The ESCRT machinery in endosomal sorting of ubiquitylated membrane proteins." Nature 458(7237): 445-452.
        Selective trafficking of membrane proteins to lysosomes for destruction is required for proper cell signalling and metabolism. Ubiquitylation aids this process by specifying which proteins should be transported to the lysosome lumen by the multivesicular endosome pathway. The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery sorts cargo labelled with ubiquitin into invaginations of endosome membranes. Then, through a highly conserved mechanism also used in cytokinesis and viral budding, it mediates the breaking off of the cargo-containing intraluminal vesicles from the perimeter membrane. The involvement of the ESCRT machinery in suppressing diseases such as cancer, neurodegeneration and infections underscores its importance to the cell.


Hurley, J. H. and G. Odorizzi (2012). "Get on the exosome bus with ALIX." Nat Cell Biol 14(7): 654-655.
        Exosomes have a growing inventory of functions, but the mechanism of protein sorting into exosomes has been unclear. Now, a signal sequence first described in viral budding provides just such a cargo sorting mechanism, revealing closer-than-expected parallelism between exosome biogenesis and the ESCRT-dependent endolysosomal pathway.


Kowal, J., et al. (2014). "Biogenesis and secretion of exosomes." Curr Opin Cell Biol 29C: 116-125.
        Although observed for several decades, the release of membrane-enclosed vesicles by cells into their surrounding environment has been the subject of increasing interest in the past few years, which led to the creation, in 2012, of a scientific society dedicated to the subject: the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles. Convincing evidence that vesicles allow exchange of complex information fuelled this rise in interest. But it has also become clear that different types of secreted vesicles co-exist, with different intracellular origins and modes of formation, and thus probably different compositions and functions. Exosomes are one sub-type of secreted vesicles. They form inside eukaryotic cells in multivesicular compartments, and are secreted when these compartments fuse with the plasma membrane. Interestingly, different families of molecules have been shown to allow intracellular formation of exosomes and their subsequent secretion, which suggests that even among exosomes different sub-types exist.


Wollert, T. and J. H. Hurley (2010). "Molecular mechanism of multivesicular body biogenesis by ESCRT complexes." Nature 464(7290): 864-869.
        When internalized receptors and other cargo are destined for lysosomal degradation, they are ubiquitinated and sorted by the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) complexes 0, I, II and III into multivesicular bodies. Multivesicular bodies are formed when cargo-rich patches of the limiting membrane of endosomes bud inwards by an unknown mechanism and are then cleaved to yield cargo-bearing intralumenal vesicles. The biogenesis of multivesicular bodies was reconstituted and visualized using giant unilamellar vesicles, fluorescent ESCRT-0, -I, -II and -III complexes, and a membrane-tethered fluorescent ubiquitin fusion as a model cargo. Here we show that ESCRT-0 forms domains of clustered cargo but does not deform membranes. ESCRT-I and ESCRT-II in combination deform the membrane into buds, in which cargo is confined. ESCRT-I and ESCRT-II localize to the bud necks, and recruit ESCRT-0-ubiquitin domains to the buds. ESCRT-III subunits localize to the bud neck and efficiently cleave the buds to form intralumenal vesicles. Intralumenal vesicles produced in this reaction contain the model cargo but are devoid of ESCRTs. The observations explain how the ESCRTs direct membrane budding and scission from the cytoplasmic side of the bud without being consumed in the reaction.


Roucourt, B., et al. (2015). "Heparanase activates the syndecan-syntenin-ALIX exosome pathway." Cell Res.
        Exosomes are secreted vesicles of endosomal origin involved in signaling processes. We recently showed that the syndecan heparan sulfate proteoglycans control the biogenesis of exosomes through their interaction with syntenin-1 and the endosomal-sorting complex required for transport accessory component ALIX. Here we investigated the role of heparanase, the only mammalian enzyme able to cleave heparan sulfate internally, in the syndecan-syntenin-ALIX exosome biogenesis pathway. We show that heparanase stimulates the exosomal secretion of syntenin-1, syndecan and certain other exosomal cargo, such as CD63, in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, exosomal CD9, CD81 and flotillin-1 are not affected. Conversely, reduction of endogenous heparanase reduces the secretion of syntenin-1-containing exosomes. The ability of heparanase to stimulate exosome production depends on syntenin-1 and ALIX. Syndecans, but not glypicans, support exosome biogenesis in heparanase-exposed cells. Finally, heparanase stimulates intraluminal budding of syndecan and syntenin-1 in endosomes, depending on the syntenin-ALIX interaction. Taken together, our findings identify heparanase as a modulator of the syndecan-syntenin-ALIX pathway, fostering endosomal membrane budding and the biogenesis of exosomes by trimming the heparan sulfate chains on syndecans. In addition, our data suggest that this mechanism controls the selection of specific cargo to exosomes.Cell Research advance online publication 3 March 2015; doi:10.1038/cr.2015.29.


Hsu, C., et al. (2010). "Regulation of exosome secretion by Rab35 and its GTPase-activating proteins TBC1D10A-C." J Cell Biol 189(2): 223-232.
        Oligodendrocytes secrete vesicles into the extracellular space, where they might play a role in neuron-glia communication. These exosomes are small vesicles with a diameter of 50-100 nm that are formed within multivesicular bodies and are released after fusion with the plasma membrane. The intracellular pathways that generate exosomes are poorly defined. Because Rab family guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) together with their regulators are important membrane trafficking organizers, we investigated which Rab GTPase-activating proteins interfere with exosome release. We find that TBC1D10A-C regulate exosome secretion in a catalytic activity-dependent manner. We show that Rab35 is the target of TBC1D10A-C and that the inhibition of Rab35 function leads to intracellular accumulation of endosomal vesicles and impairs exosome secretion. Rab35 localizes to the surface of oligodendroglia in a GTP-dependent manner, where it increases the density of vesicles, suggesting a function in docking or tethering. These findings provide a basis for understanding the biogenesis and function of exosomes in the central nervous system.


Ghossoub, R., et al. (2014). "Syntenin-ALIX exosome biogenesis and budding into multivesicular bodies are controlled by ARF6 and PLD2." Nat Commun 5: 3477.
        Exosomes are small vesicles that are secreted by cells and act as mediators of cell to cell communication. Because of their potential therapeutic significance, important efforts are being made towards characterizing exosomal contents. However, little is known about the mechanisms that govern exosome biogenesis. We have recently shown that the exosomal protein syntenin supports exosome production. Here we identify the small GTPase ADP ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) and its effector phospholipase D2 (PLD2) as regulators of syntenin exosomes. ARF6 and PLD2 affect exosomes by controlling the budding of intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) into multivesicular bodies (MVBs). ARF6 also controls epidermal growth factor receptor degradation, suggesting a role in degradative MVBs. Yet ARF6 does not affect HIV-1 budding, excluding general effects on Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport. Our study highlights a novel pathway controlling ILV budding and exosome biogenesis and identifies an unexpected role for ARF6 in late endosomal trafficking.


Hyenne, V., et al. (2015). "RAL-1 controls multivesicular body biogenesis and exosome secretion." J Cell Biol 211(1): 27-37.
        Exosomes are secreted vesicles arising from the fusion of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) with the plasma membrane. Despite their importance in various processes, the molecular mechanisms controlling their formation and release remain unclear. Using nematodes and mammary tumor cells, we show that Ral GTPases are involved in exosome biogenesis. In Caenorhabditis elegans, RAL-1 localizes at the surface of secretory MVBs. A quantitative electron microscopy analysis of RAL-1-deficient animals revealed that RAL-1 is involved in both MVB formation and their fusion with the plasma membrane. These functions do not involve the exocyst complex, a common Ral guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) effector. Furthermore, we show that the target membrane SNARE protein SYX-5 colocalizes with a constitutively active form of RAL-1 at the plasma membrane, and MVBs accumulate under the plasma membrane when SYX-5 is absent. In mammals, RalA and RalB are both required for the secretion of exosome-like vesicles in cultured cells. Therefore, Ral GTPases represent new regulators of MVB formation and exosome release.


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发表于 2016-7-18 17:50:40 | 显示全部楼层
感谢分享!
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发表于 2016-7-20 22:18:38 | 显示全部楼层
感谢分享,大赞!
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发表于 2016-12-23 16:57:01 | 显示全部楼层
大赞,谢谢分享,可以下载看看
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发表于 2017-11-29 16:30:21 | 显示全部楼层
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发表于 2018-2-10 10:12:29 | 显示全部楼层
感觉外泌体的biogenesis是个很复杂的事情啊,各种蛋白,目前还没有一个非常权威和经典的说法
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发表于 2018-8-30 16:10:12 | 显示全部楼层
多谢分享
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发表于 2018-11-13 22:27:57 | 显示全部楼层
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发表于 2019-1-21 16:57:40 | 显示全部楼层
感谢感谢感谢
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发表于 2019-4-9 08:53:30 | 显示全部楼层
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